Cladonia Browne | MYCO-LICH

Cladonia Browne


The lichen flora of Iran is still incompletely known. Seaward et al. (2004) recently published a checklist containing 396 species, but commented that it was likely that more than 1000 species occur in the country.  12 species of Cladonia were listed by Seaward et al.( 2004 ) and Sohrabi (2005), However the north and north-west of Iran are suitable for this genus due to the cool, moist climate and the presence of high mountains and forest. The species of the genus Cladonia are usually fairly conspicuous fruticose lichens.  Numbered with them are the well-known reindeer and cup lichens.  The Cladonia plant consists, as a rule, of two parts, that spreading over the substrate “ground based,” squamulose or small foliose thallus and the more or less erect growing, higher podetia, whose many forms are known: horn- or peg-form, strongly bushy branching, trumpet- or coral-like.  On the podetia develop brown, deep red or rarely yellowish apothecia without thalloid margin.  Often no apothecia are produced; reproduction then occurs by thallus fragments or soredia, with which the upper surface of the may be entirely or partially covered.  In the case of the richly branching, almost never fruiting reindeer lichens, the basic thallus is extremely reduced. Many species are very variable.  The species concept is in many cases not stabilized.  They are frequently separated into several chemical races.  The world wide distributed genus numbers at least 430 species ( Wmr.T.Ahti 2005) The genus is now quite well-known in Europe, Although additional taxa are still being discovered. Seven  species of Cladonia new to Iran are reported in this paper